ARTES DE PESCA: LA NASA

A todos nos encanta disfrutar de unas buenas centollas o de una voluptuosa fuente de camarones, pero sea cual sea el marisco debe ser capturado por el arte de pesca que mejor mantenga sus cualidades en la mesa. Y aunque nos parezcan detalles casi insignificantes, de ellos dependerá la calidad del marisco.

Dentro de cada tipo de arte de pesca, cada una de ellas puede adaptarse a la zona y al tipo de especie que se desee capturar, adjudicándose variedades infinitas. Esto se ilustra perfectamente con la nasa, ya que al ser una de las artes más antiguas que a día de hoy todavía se utilizan ‒ su presencia en Galicia está documentada desde el s.XVI ‒, ha dado lugar a una variopinta colección.

Este arte consiste en un cilindro de juncos o mimbre entretejidos, con una especie de embudo dirigido hacia adentro en una de sus bases y cerrado con una tapadera en la otra para poder vaciarlo. 

Historia

A excepción del marisqueo y el arponeado, la nasa fue probablemente el método más primitivo de pesca. Las primeras nasas se utilizaron para capturar anguilas en las zonas cercanas a las desembocaduras de los ríos, aprovechando así los cambios de mareas y los flujos de corriente para facilitar su captura. 

A finales del siglo XIX, la langosta del norte de España era una de las especies más codiciadas, lo que fomentó el desarrollo de esta pesquería y la aparición de barcos franceses en nuestras costas. Los pescadores autóctonos al encontrarse con las nasas francesas se dieron cuenta de que eran más pequeñas, pero mucho más efectivas, ya que el embudo se encontraba en la parte superior. Obviamente esto supuso una evolución en este tipo de nasas autóctonas, y que actualmente se emplean para capturar centollas, buey de mar y bogavante. Una de las nasas más recientes, nacidas en este siglo, es la que se emplea para la captura de la nécora y del camarón. Su forma es muy similar a la de la anguila, pero con un diámetro de embudo mayor. En sus inicios se fabricaban de mimbre, pero poco a poco fueron sustituidas por nasas de madera o hierro revestidas de red.

Un cambio determinante en esta nasa fue el del portacebos. Debido a la inteligencia del pulpo, esta nasa no servía para su captura, porque era capaz de coger el cebo y huir. La solución adoptada por los pescadores gallegos fue la introducción del cebo en pequeñas bolsas de malla tupida, que se suelen encontrar habitualmente en las playas de Galicia, y que las niñas pequeñas solían utilizar como monederos.

La gran ventaja de este arte sobre otros es que permite cierto control sobre las especies y tamaños de captura. La entrada, en forma de embudo, regula el tamaño máximo de la presa que entra, mientras que la malla de revestimiento regula la talla mínima retenida. 

Nasas de pesca de cerca

A lo largo de la historia las nasas han demostrado ser un arte menos perjudicial que otras, debido a su moderado poder de pesca y por capturar vivas a sus presas. De ahí, el reclamo de muchas asociaciones a que se vuelvan a utilizar estas artes más selectivas y menos perjudiciales para el medio marino. 

Características

Las nasas son consideradas artes pasivas y tienen forma de cesto, barril o jaula y están compuestas por un armazón rígido o semirrígido recubierto de red. Suelen tener una o más aberturas en cada extremo, para facilitar la entrada de las especies al interior, atraídas por el cebo. 

Estos instrumentos se calan en el fondo con una boya, normalmente unidas a una línea principal en diferentes intervalos, formando una palangre de nasas o andana. Por norma general, la nasa consta de las siguientes partes:

  1. Armazón: formado por varillas en sentido longitudinal y aros en el transversal. A él van unidos el resto de elementos. 
  2. Forro: conjunto de mallas que recubren el armazón formando el cuerpo de la nasa.
  3. Entrada o afaz: generalmente es un embudo o cono cuya disposición dificulta la salida de las especies que la han atravesado. 
  4. Tapadera: es la puerta por la que se vacía la nasa, sacando al exterior la captura. Normalmente, es la base opuesta a la del embudo.

En la actualidad, las nasas son mixtas, ya que utilizan diferentes materiales para su fabricación: desde cáñamo y mimbre hasta el acero inoxidable de las varillas del armazón. Por otro lado, su forma viene determinada por la especie que se desee capturar:

De forma cilíndrica

  • Nasa para pescado
  • Nasa para angulas (alargada)

De forma cilíndrica o poliédrica:

  • Nasa para nécora y camarón
  • Nasa para langosta
  • Nasa para centollas
  • Nasa para choco (también puede ser semicilíndrica con fondo plano)

De forma cuadrada:

  • Nasa para pulpo

 

 

Fuentes:

- Artesáns da pesca | Artes menores: las nasas

- Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación | Capítulo III: las nasas

- Nasa Atlántica | La pesca con nasas en Galicia: una visión histórica

- Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Alimentación y la Agricultura | Uso de medidas técnicas en la pesca responsable: regulación de artes de pesca

Expomar | Repositorio de artes de pesca

‘Artes e aparello de pesca empregados en Galicia’, de Manuel Fariña Castro 

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