Propiedades del ácido fólico

El ácido fólico o vitamina B9 es una vitamina hidrosoluble del grupo B. Nuestro organismo al no poder sintetizarlo, es muy importante tenerla en cuenta en nuestra dieta y mantener unos niveles adecuados.

Ilustración María Grande

 

Los alimentos más conocidos que destacan por su contenido son principalmente las verduras de hoja verde como las espinacas, espárragos trigueros, acelgas, etc. Aunque el ácido fólico también se encuentra en importantes cantidades en alimentos no tan conocidos como son las algas (lechuga de mar, espaguetti de mar, wakame y kombu). También podemos encontrarlo en algunos mariscos como las navajas, las nécoras y el buey de mar, entre otros.

Las principales causas de deficiencia de ácido fólico es por una ingesta inadecuada (o problemas de absorción) e interferencias producidas por medicamentos, como por ejemplo, para la epilépsia. Otra causa importante de deficiencia es el embarazo ya que el feto en desarrollo consume rápidamente los depósitos maternos de ácido fólico.

Tiene un papel poco conocido pero fundamental en la prevención de algunas enfermedades, sobre todo en algunas enfermedades congénitas como la espina bífida o malformaciones cerebrales. Esto se debe a que durante el desarrollo fetal precoz la síntesis de ácidos nucleicos y proteínas está en su nivel más alto y los requerimientos maternos de folatos aumentan rápidamente durante este período. Cuando el nivel de folatos es insuficiente se inhibe la síntesis de ácidos nucleicos y las células no son capaces de producir suficiente ADN para las mitosis (sistema de división celular).

Tras muchos estudios al respecto se ha llegado a la conclusión que, si durante los tres meses antes de quedar embarazada y durante el primer trimestre del embarazo, las futuras madres consumieran 0,4 miligramos de ácido fólico, podrían reducirse hasta en un 70% la probabilidad de que su hijo padezca alguna de estas malformaciones.

Bibliografía:

- Cortés M., F.; Hirsch B., S. et Pía de la Maza C., M. Importancia del ácido fólico en la medicina actual Revista médica de Chile 2000;128(2). Versión impresa ISSN 0034-9887.

- Pita Rodríguez, G. Ácido fólico y vitamina B12 en la nutrición humana. Instituto de Nutrición e Higiene de los Alimentos. Revista Cubana Aliment Nutr 1998;12(2):107-19.

Federación Española de Asociaciones de Espina Bífida e Hidrocefalia

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