LANGOSTA ROJA Y BLANCA, ¿EN QUÉ SE DIFERENCIAN?

Siempre que tenemos disponibilidad de langosta en la web surge la misma duda: en qué se diferencian la langosta roja y blanca, y por qué sus precios están tan alejados (la roja es mucho más cara). 

Antes de embarcarnos en sus diferencias, es importante conocer las características de la familia de las langostas y cómo se comportan, ya que así será más fácil entender en qué se diferencian.

Izquierda: Langosta roja. Derecha: Langosta blanca.

Características de las langostas

Las langostas forman parte de la familia denominada Palinuridae y son crustáceos decápodos. Cada especie dentro de la familia recibe un nombre científico que permite diferenciarlas mejor. En este caso, la langosta roja se denomina Palinurus elephas; y la langosta blanca es Palinurus mauritanicus.

Su estructura

Las langostas se identifican por tener pinzas gruesas y un cuerpo rígido dividido en 3 partes: cefalotórax, abdomen y telson (parte posterior). Su cabeza (cefalotórax) es espinosa y posee dos largas antenas, las cuales utilizan para guiarse en los fondos marinos. Además, estos crustáceos marinos cuentan con 5 pares de patas para caminar (de ahí que se denominen decápodos) y alimentarse, ya que cada par tiene una función: capturar, triturar y cortar el alimento. 

Su alimentación

La dieta de estos crustáceos es omnívora y muy flexible, pues pueden consumir desde pequeños peces, moluscos y algas hasta incluso otras langostas, sobre todo cuando los crustáceos se encuentran en cautiverio y terminan recurriendo al canibalismo para poder alimentarse.

Su boca se encuentra justo debajo del cefalotórax, entre las antenas. Con sus mandíbulas, realizan una primera “masticación” de los alimentos y estos pasan al primer estómago (cardíaco) donde son molidos. Después, pasan al segundo estómago (pilórico) y finalmente al intestino.

Su comportamiento

Las langostas son crustáceos bentónicos, esto significa que viven en los fondos marinos. Viven en madrigueras excavadas por ellas mismas, entre las grietas de las rocas y las hierbas marinas. Normalmente, desarrollan su actividad durante la noche y durante el día, descansan. 

Con la ayuda de sus patas, se desplazan lentamente y no suelen nadar, a menos que se encuentren en una situación de peligro y necesiten moverse con rapidez. En este caso, pueden alcanzar los 5 metros por segundo nadando hacia atrás. 

Su reproducción

Macho y hembra se aparean y es ésta quien lleva consigo los huevos durante 1 año aproximadamente, para después liberar las larvas en el agua. Estas pasan por varias etapas hasta alcanzar la última, donde adquieren la forma más parecida a una langosta adulta y comienzan su vida bentónica. 

Entonces, ¿en qué se diferencian?

Con la finalidad de conocer bien sus diferencias, hemos creado la siguiente tabla, la cual recoge a la perfección las características de cada una y las expone de forma sencilla:

 
Característica Langosta roja  Langosta blanca
Nombre científico Palinurus elephas Palinurus mauritanicus
Apariencia Su color es rojo intenso y cuenta con puntos muy marcados en cada segmento. De color más blanquecino y con puntitos blancos totalmente distribuidos por toda la cola.
Estructura

Cabeza en proporción al cuerpo.

Los tres primeros pares acaban en forma de pinza para poder capturar alimentos.

Su cabeza es más grande que su cuerpo. 

Los pares 1º y 4º no terminan en pinzas, sino en una uña aguda.

Distribución geográfica Costas Atlánticas de la zona más septentrional de las islas Británicas hasta Marruecos. Las costas Atlánticas africanas hasta Senegal y el mediterráneo noroccidental.
Zona de captura Portugal Mauritania (de ahí su nombre científico).
Profundidad De 10 a 100 metros De 100 a 400 metros
Disponibilidad Exclusiva Abundante
Sabor y textura Carne compacta, blanca, fina y delicada. De alta calidad. Carne sabrosa y consistente.
¡Bonus! 

Como curiosidad, ¿sabes que con qué otros nombres nos referimos a estas langostas?

Langosta roja: langosta común, langosta europea, langosta vulgar, langosta espinosa o  langosta mediterránea.

Langosta blanca: langosta mora, langosta mauritanica, langosta portuguesa, langosta africana, langosta salameña, langosta rosada o langosta diamante.

 

Fuentes:

 - Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación (1) (2)

- Organización de productores de pesca del Puerto y Ría de Marín (Opromar)

- Instituto Español de Oceanografía

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